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Igneous rocks form over 80 percent of the Earth's surface, both above and below the ocean's surface.
Igneous rocks (rocks from fire) include volcanic (erupted) and plutonic (molten material that cooled before erupting) rocks.
Miller's sealed system contained water and inorganic compounds like those found in volcanic gases.
Eventually the atmosphere reached its maximum capacity to hold water and the rain started.
Although scientists have not yet triggered life in a flask, the experiments show that the materials of simple life forms developed in the early oceans of Earth.
Analysis of DNA from modern life forms, from bacteria to humans, shows that the earliest simple ancestors lived in hot water.
Follow-up experiments by Miller and others showed that shaking the flask to simulate wave action resulted in some of the amino acids becoming trapped together in small bubbles resembling the simplest bacteria.
They also showed that the amino acids will stick to some naturally occurring minerals.
The friction of the colliding material combined with the heat from radioactive decay. As the spinning molten mass slowed and cooled, the bubbling cauldron developed a solid surface layer.