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For some African Americans, jazz has drawn attention to African-American contributions to culture and history.For others, jazz is a reminder of "an oppressive and racist society and restrictions on their artistic visions".Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression.
Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music's rhythms, electric instruments, and highly amplified stage sound.
The Chicago School (or Chicago Style) was developed by white musicians such as Eddie Condon, Bud Freeman, Jimmy Mc Partland, and Dave Tough.
Others from Chicago such as Benny Goodman and Gene Krupa became leading members of swing during the 1930s.
Since the emergence of bebop, forms of jazz that are commercially oriented or influenced by popular music have been criticized.
According to Bruce Johnson, there has always been a "tension between jazz as a commercial music and an art form".
But critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader,".